Life Boat Structure And Accessories
Lifeboats can be classified into wood, steel, aluminum alloy, and glass reinforced plastic according to the construction materials. FRP lifeboats are easy to construct and maintain and are currently the most common.
Lifeboats can be divided into open, fully enclosed and partially enclosed according to different structural forms. When the open wind encounters a storm of 4-5 or above, the occupant will be attacked by seawater, and the occupant will be threatened with death during low temperature or exposure. Therefore, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 requires passenger ships to be equipped with partially enclosed or fully enclosed lifeboats. Cargo ships and tankers should be equipped with fully enclosed lifeboats.
(1) Open lifeboat
The open lifeboat is a traditional lifeboat. It can only be used to erect a temporary canopy without a cover, and has poor protection for the occupants.
The skeleton of the open lifeboat has a keel, a first column, a tail column, a rib, a horizontal seat plate, and a vertical seat plate (side seat plate). These skeletons ensure the strength of the hull lifeboat. Its outer casing consists of a hull and a fender top edge (or rim). The hull not only guarantees the buoyancy and watertightness of the lifeboat, but also ensures the strength of the hull. The fenders protect the sides of the boat. The edge of the boat is the upper edge of the two sides of the ship. When there is a paddle hole on the top of the boat, the paddle fork can be inserted. The inside of the boat edge is also equipped with a ceiling frame socket for erecting a nylon cloth roof. In order to ensure that the lifeboat still has buoyancy when filled with water or leaking, an air box or a rigid closed-cell foam floating body is arranged under the side seat plate, and a guard plate is provided on the outside to protect it. The boat's first and last pedals are equipped with a towing hook, and the bottom of the boat has a pad (or grid), a bottom drain hole and a bottom plug. There is also a footrest on the bottom of the bottom of the slab below the slab. When the crew rides on the sill, the two feet can rest on the footrest. For the purpose of paddling, a foot cover that is placed on the foot can also be provided on the footrest. On the outside of the lifeboat, there are two chain-like catenary life-saving floats (hands) for the dredging personnel to lift and also serve as the foot for climbing the boat. On both sides of the bottom of the boat, there are keel keel or keel support and a handle rope tied to the rim of the keel. When the boat is overturned, the occupant can grab the handlebar and climb the bottom of the boat and hold the bilge keel to be rescued on the overturned boat.
Open lifeboats are divided into organic and non-motorized boats. Non-motorized open lifeboat without engine, in addition to paddles and rafts, there is a stern ring on the sill plate, and a shackle on the bottom of the boat. There is a small eye ring for the sling and the reins of the cable guide.
(2) Fully enclosed lifeboat
It is based on the open lifeboat with a rigid closed top cover to ensure that the occupants are protected from cold and heat. The hull of the fully enclosed lifeboat and the material of the rigid enclosed roof are flame retardant or non-combustible. The crew can complete the loading and unloading work and can paddle under the closed cover. The entrance cover of the closed cover is provided with a passage cover, which can be clamped when opened, and the occupant can quickly reach the seat without crossing the horizontal seat plate or other obstacles (all the occupants of the cargo ship can board the boat within 3 minutes). It is watertight when it is closed and there is no significant water leakage when the lifeboat is overturned. The access cover should be openable and closable on both the inside and outside.
In addition to the requirements for a fully enclosed lifeboat, a lifeboat with an air-maintaining system is provided with a gas supply cylinder and a visual indicator indicating the supply air pressure. This lifeboat has a certain airtightness requirement to start from closing all entrances and exits and the air in the boat should be kept safe and suitable for breathing and the engine is running normally for at least 10 minutes. During this period, the air pressure in the boat shall not be lower than the pressure outside the boat, nor shall it exceed 20 degrees Pa above the atmospheric pressure outside the boat.
Bulk liquefied gas carriers and tankers carrying hazardous chemicals should be equipped with lifeboats with air maintenance systems because of the need for respiratory protection during emergency escapes.
In addition to the requirements for fully enclosed lifeboats, fire-resisting lifeboats should also have an air-maintenance system and protect the occupants from continuous oil fires for not less than 8 minutes when it is on the surface. In addition to its non-combustible or flame-retardant hull and roof, the fire-resisting lifeboat is also equipped with a water spray fire protection system. This system can be pumped from the sea to the outside of the lifeboat and can prevent the flammable liquid on the water from being pumped up when pumping.
Oil tankers, chemical liquefaction vessels and liquefied gas carriers with a flash point not exceeding 60 °C should use fire-resisting lifeboats.
(3) Partially enclosed lifeboats
The main difference between a partially enclosed lifeboat and a fully enclosed lifeboat is that it has a rigid roof only at the bow and the stern. The length of the first and last top covers are not less than 20% of the length of the boat. The middle part is provided with a foldable top cover, which forms a windshield cover with the rigid top cover of the first and last ends.
Some enclosed lifeboats cannot be self-righting when they are overturned. However, in case of overturning, the occupant can escape and have a climbing device similar to the open lifeboat at the bottom of the boat for the occupant to climb.
Partially enclosed lifeboats require drowning equipment or automatic drowning equipment because the top cover is not watertight. Although the speed of drowning is not clearly defined, the faster and more effective it is, the better.
Passenger ships are permitted to use semi-enclosed lifeboats in addition to fully enclosed lifeboats.
A self-righting partially enclosed lifeboat is a partially enclosed lifeboat required by a fully enclosed lifeboat, that is, its stability conforms to loading all or part of the occupants and attachments, and all the occupants are bound by a safety belt and then the boat is overturned. Can automatically support.
Lifesaving should have natural buoyancy or natural buoyancy materials that are not affected by adverse factors such as seawater, crude oil or petroleum products. When the boat is flooded and leaking through the sea, the lifeboat full of all attachments can still be floated. Each lifeboat rated occupant shall be provided with an additional natural buoyancy material equivalent to 280 Newtons of buoyancy, which shall be located in the hull.
A fully enclosed lifeboat has a seat belt at each designated seat. When the ship is overturned, the person with a mass of 100 kg can be firmly tied to the original place. Its stability is to load all occupants and attachments, all inlets and openings are watertight, and all occupants can self-righteously when they are fastened with safety belts. In the event of damage to the stability, the occupants can escape on their own.
The name of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs, the port of registry and the number of the boat shall be marked on both sides of the bow. These markers should be visible in the air.
The lifeboat number is a single number placed on the starboard side and a double number placed on the starboard side, numbered from the bow to the stern. If there is more than one deck, the lifeboats are placed in order from the upper deck to the lower deck.
The normal attachments of each lifeboat shall include:
(1) A sufficient number of floatables (more than 4), paddles or paddles. The paddle or paddle should be attached to the boat with a short or short chain;
(2) 2 hooked boat rafts;
(3) The length of the first cable is not less than 2 times (not less than 15 meters) from the storage position of the lifeboat to the lightest navigation waterline, one of which is at the front end of the bow and connected to the disengagement device; One is fixed near the bow or the bow;
(4) 2 sets of Taiping axe, one for each end and one end;
(5) 1 sea anchor, 1 anchor cable and 1 anchor cable;
(6) 1 floatable scoop and 2 buckets;
(7) 1 hand pump;
(8) There are 2 floatable life-saving rings with a length of not less than 30 meters;
(9) Several waterproof containers with 3 liters of fresh water per person, of which 1 liter can be replaced by a seawater desalter;
(10) 1 stainless water spoon with a lanyard;
(11) 1 stainless measuring cup;
(12) rations of not less than 10,000 kJ of heat per person in the airtight package and stored in a waterproof container;
(13) 1 sailor knife tied to the boat with a short rope;
(14) 3 can openers;
(15) 1 set of fishing equipment;
(16) Rocket parachute flame signal 4;
(17) 6 hand-held flame signals;
(18) 2 floating smoke signals;
(19) One waterproof flashlight for Mohs communication, together with a spare battery and a spare bulb 1 in a waterproof container;
(20) One side of the daylight signal mirror includes instructions for communication with ships and aircraft;
(21) 1 whistle or equivalent sound number;
(22) 1 lifesaving manual;
(23) Waterproof life-saving signal diagram description table 1;
(24) 1 set of first aid kits in the waterproof first aid kit;
(25) 6 anti-sickness medicines per person, 1 cleaning bag;
(26) a compassing cabinet coated with a luminescent agent or with suitable lighting means;
(27) 1 searchlight that can be used for 6 hours and can be used continuously for not less than 3 hours;
(28) 1 effective radar reflector;
(29) 2 pieces of heat preservation equipment, but not less than 10% of the rated crew;
(30) Tools for small adjustments of the engine and its accessories;
(31) One type of hand-held fire extinguisher for extinguishing oil fires.
All attachments except the hooked raft shall not be fixed for the expansion of the lifeboat. All attachments shall be stored in the cabinet, in the cabin or otherwise secured in the boat to avoid loss.
Lifeboat boarding and lifting
Each lifeboat is stored on a landing gear. The lifeboat can also be recycled by the landing gear. The lifeboat's landing gear is commonly used with gravity davits on both sides of the ship. Recently, fully enclosed lifeboats have a stern-mounted ramp mounted on the stern.
The lifeboat shall be capable of safely landing only by gravity without relying on the ship's power when the ship's pitch is 10 degrees and the heel is 20 degrees to any side. The lifeboat is fully equipped when landing and is fully loaded with all occupants or no personnel. The lifeboat landing equipment shall be arranged so that after the abandonment signal is issued, all passengers and attachments fall into the water within 30 minutes of the passenger ship and within 10 minutes of the cargo ship.
In the case of fully enclosed lifeboats, in general, the maneuvering boat and the first crew are also boarded by the boarding ladder after the boat is launched. However, in a critical situation, after the boat is placed on the boarding deck, it can enter the boat and release the boat through the remote control boat. One end of the wire rope is connected to the handle of the boat and the other end is introduced into the boat through the cable hole on the top cover. Tighten the wire rope inside the boat so that the hammer on one end of the handle is lowered. If you loosen the wire rope brake, the brake boat will stop falling. During the boating process, the wire should be forced until the boat is lowered to the surface to release the remote control boat rope.